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E1 and E2 Visas: Treaty Trader and Investor Visas

The United States offers unique avenues for foreign entrepreneurs and investors to establish a presence and contribute to the country’s economy. The E1 and E2 visas, commonly known as Treaty Trader and Treaty Investor visas, respectively, provide a pathway for individuals from countries with which the U.S. maintains treaties to engage in trade or make substantial investments. In this blog post, we’ll explore the key aspects of these visas, from eligibility criteria to application processes.

E1 Visa: Facilitating International Trade

The E1 Treaty Trader visa is designed for individuals engaged in substantial international trade between the United States and their home country. To qualify for an E1 visa, applicants must meet the following criteria:

  1. Nationality Requirement: The applicant must be a national of a country with which the United States maintains a treaty of commerce and navigation.
  2. Substantial Trade: The trade must be substantial, involving a continuous flow of sizable international transactions of goods, services, or technology.
  3. Principle Trade: The majority of the trade must be between the United States and the treaty country.
  4. Executive or Supervisory Role: The applicant must be employed in an executive or supervisory role or possess skills essential to the efficient operation of the trade.

E2 Visa: Fostering Foreign Investment

The E2 Treaty Investor visa, on the other hand, is tailored for foreign nationals who wish to make a substantial investment in a U.S. business. Key requirements for the E2 visa include:

  1. Nationality Requirement: Similar to the E1 visa, applicants must be nationals of a treaty country.
  2. Substantial Investment: The investor must make a substantial investment in a bona fide enterprise in the U.S. This typically involves a significant amount of capital.
  3. Control or Ownership: The investor must have a significant ownership stake in the enterprise or exercise control over the business.
  4. Intent to Develop and Direct: The investment must be made with the intent of developing and directing the business.
  5. Not Marginal: The enterprise must not be marginal, meaning it should have the capacity to generate more than enough income to provide a minimal living for the investor and their family.

Application Process

Both E1 and E2 visas involve a multi-step application process, including:

  1. Petition Filing: The U.S. employer or sponsoring organization files a petition with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
  2. Visa Application: Once the petition is approved, the applicant applies for the visa at a U.S. embassy or consulate in their home country.
  3. Interview: Applicants are typically required to attend a visa interview where they present supporting documents and answer questions related to their eligibility.
  4. Visa Issuance: If approved, the applicant receives the E1 or E2 visa, allowing them to enter the United States for the specified purpose.

Processing Times

As a general guideline, USCIS processing times for various visa categories often range from several months to over a year. Consular processing at U.S. embassies or consulates can add additional time, depending on the location and demand.

Here are some rough estimates based on historical data (please note that these are general estimates and may not reflect the current situation):

  1. USCIS Processing Times:
    • USCIS processing times for the initial petition or application (I-129 for E1/E2, for example) can range from a few months to over a year.
  2. Consular Processing:
    • After USCIS approval, consular processing at a U.S. embassy or consulate can take several weeks to a few months. This timeframe depends on the specific embassy or consulate and their workload.
  3. Total Processing Time:
    • Taking both USCIS and consular processing into account, the overall processing time for E1 and E2 visas could range from several months to a year or more.

Benefits and Considerations

Both E1 and E2 visas offer several benefits, such as the ability to work and reside in the U.S., travel in and out of the country freely, and bring qualifying dependents. However, applicants must carefully consider the specific requirements and limitations associated with each visa category.


The E1 and E2 visas serve as valuable tools for fostering international trade and investment, contributing to the dynamic landscape of the U.S. economy. Aspiring entrepreneurs and investors should thoroughly research the requirements and seek professional guidance to navigate the application process successfully.

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The content provided on this blog is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. Readers should not act upon any information presented on this blog without seeking professional legal counsel. The opinions expressed at or through this blog are the opinions of the individual author and may not reflect the opinions of the firm or any individual attorney. Please consult with an attorney regarding your specific legal situation.

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